Reported STD infection rates in Cuyahoga County and HIV/AIDS Surveillance in Cleveland for 2006
Rates of Chlamydia and gonorrhea infections reported in 2006 for Cuyahoga County and Cleveland increased 6.8% and 2.0% from 2005 rates. Infection rates in county municipalities outside of Cleveland increased significantly by 23.6% and 33.8%, respectively for Chlamydia and gonorrhea. Maps illustrate increasing rates into inner and outer ring municipalities. Most infections are among teens (15-19) and young adults under 30. HIV case counts continue to rise for Cleveland and the Greater Cleveland area.
For 2006, Chalmydia infections reported to local and state health departments for Cuyahoga County and Cleveland residents increased 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. Gonorrhea infection rates increased 12.0% (county) and 8.5% (Cleveland). Rate increases for the county in 2006 were not driven by rate increases in Cleveland. Instead, infection rates in the municipalities outside of Cleveland increased by 23.6% for Chlamydia and 33.8% for gonorrhea infections over 2005 rates.
7,131 cases of Chlamydia infections were reported for Cuyahoga County in 2006, for a rate of 534.0 per 100,000. Reported rates for females (747.6 per 100,000) are twice as high as rates reported among males (305.7 per 100,000). Rates among Black/African Americans (non-Hispanic) in the county are 1,223.1 per 100,000, followed by rates for Hispanic residents (410.0 per 100,000) and White non-Hispanic residents (80.5 per 100,000).
4,674 cases of gonorrhea infections were reported for Cuyahoga County in 2006, for a rate of 350.0 per 100,000. Reported rates for females (327.2 per 100,000) were less than those for males (384.7 per 100,000). Rates among Black/African Americans (non-Hispanic) in the county are 905.2 per 100,000, followed by rates for Hispanic residents (200.5 per 100,000) and White non-Hispanic residents (31.9 per 100,000).
Teens and STDs
Forty percent (n=2,994) of Chlamydia cases reported in Cuyahoga County were among teens (age 15 to 19) at the time of diagnosis, while another 32.8% (n=2,336) were age 20 to 24. For gonorrhea, 28.3% (n=1,325) of reported cases in Cuyahoga County were among teens age 15 to 19 at the time of diagnosis, while another 29.8% (n=1,393) were age 20 to 24 when diagnosed.
Chlamydia rates where highest among Black/African American teen girls, where nearly 1 in every 10, on average, were reported to be infected with Chlamydia (9,616.0 per 100,000). Rates for Black/African American teen males was 3,295.7 per 100,000, or 1 in every 30, on average, were reported to be infected with Chlamydia. Hispanic teen females had the third highest Chlamydia infection rates, with 2,508.9 per 100,000 reporting, followed by White non-Hispanic teen females at 884.1 per 100,000.
It is believed that many young girls are being reinfected after treatment. Detection often occurs at prenatal or family planning screening. Surveillance data revealed a high incidence of reinfection in addition to co-infection, where 10.5% of all persons (all ages) tested for Chlamydia and gonorrhea were positive for both infections at the time of testing. For Cleveland and inner/outer ring residents reported with an STD, 11.0% and 8.9%, respectively, were coinfected with both chlamydia and gonorrhea at the time of testing. Public health nurses have reported the incidence of oral infections as well as genital and urethral infection sites.
Initial symptoms of a Chalmydia or gonorrhea infection may go unnoticed or unrecognized. Therefore, teens and young adults should be informed of the symptoms and illnesses that can be caused by Chlamydia and gonorrhea.
The report also presents data on Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection among children 10-14, with the majority of cases age 13 and 14. In 2006, 128 cases of Chlamydia infection among children age 10-14 at the time of diagnosis for Cuyahoga County were reported to the Ohio Department of Health.
Additional data tables and maps
Tables with incidence rates reported for each zip code in Cuyahoga County can be accessed by clicking the following links:
The report was produced by the Cleveland Department of Health, in cooperation with the Cuyahoga County Board of Health and the Ohio Department of Health (ODH). Data obtained from ODH STD Surveillance Program was reviewed by CDPH. Since confidential surveillance data reported to health authorities includes zip codes of residence, and often cities and addresses, the data were reviewed, corrected for incorrect city or zip code placement using standardized street data files, and were analyzed to obtain the most accurate surveillance of chlamydia and gonorrhea for the county.
Keywords: Children, County, Disparity, HIV/AIDS, Maps, Municipal, STD, Safe Sex, Statistics, Teens